Pioneer BDP-LX91 manual

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  • Brand: Pioneer
  • Product: Blu-ray player
  • Model/name: BDP-LX91
  • Filetype: PDF
  • Available languages: Dutch, English, Italian

Table of Contents

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Hoofdstuk 7
Aanvullende informatie
Licenties
De licenties voor de software die is toegepast in deze disc-speler
worden hieronder vermeld. Om vergissingen uit te sluiten, hebben
we hierbij de oorspronkelijke (Engelse) tekst vermeld.
 libxml2
The MIT License
Copyright © <year> <copyright holders>
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this
software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the
Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy,
modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software,
and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the
following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
 OpenSSL
The OpenSSL toolkit stays under a dual license, i.e. both the conditions of the
OpenSSL License and the original SSLeay license apply to the toolkit.
See below for the actual license texts. Actually both licenses are BSD-style Open
Source licenses. In case of any license issues related to OpenSSL please contact
openssl-core@openssl.org.
OpenSSL License
Copyright © 1998-2007 The OpenSSL Project. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are
permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list
of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or
other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
display the following acknowledgment: “This product includes software
developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://
www.openssl.org/)”
4. The names “OpenSSL Toolkit” and “OpenSSL Project” must not be used to
endorse or promote products derived from this software without prior written
permission. For written permission, please contact openssl-
core@openssl.org.
5. Products derived from this software may not be called “OpenSSL” nor may
“OpenSSL” appear in their names without prior written permission of the
OpenSSL Project.
6. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
acknowledgment: “This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL
Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/)”
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT “AS IS” AND ANY
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE OpenSSL
PROJECT OR ITS CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN
IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com).This product includes software written by Tim Hudson
(tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Original SSLeay License
Copyright © 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
All rights reserved.
This package is an SSL implementation written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).
The implementation was written so as to conform with Netscapes SSL.
This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as the following
conditions are aheared to. The following conditions apply to all code found in this
distribution, be it the RC4, RSA, lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the SSL code. The
SSL documentation included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright
terms except that the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
Copyright remains Eric Young’s, and as such any Copyright notices in the code are
not to be removed. If this package is used in a product, Eric Young should be given
attribution as the author of the parts of the library used. This can be in the form of
a textual message at program startup or in documentation (online or textual)
provided with the package.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are
permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright notice, this list of
conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or
other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
display the following acknowledgement: “This product includes cryptographic
software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)”
The word ‘cryptographic’ can be left out if the rouines from the library being
used are not cryptographic related :-).
4. If you include any Windows specific code (or a derivative thereof) from the apps
directory (application code) you must include an acknowledgement: “This
product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)”
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG “AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA,
OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
The licence and distribution terms for any publically available version or derivative
of this code cannot be changed. i.e. this code cannot simply be copied and put
under another distribution licence [including the GNU Public Licence.]
 zlib
This software is based in part on zlib see http://www.zlib.net for information.
 FreeType2
The FreeType Project LICENSE
2006-Jan-27 Copyright 1996-2002, 2006 by David Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and
Werner Lemberg
Introduction
The FreeType Project is distributed in several archive packages; some of them may
contain, in addition to the FreeType font engine, various tools and contributions
which rely on, or relate to, the FreeType Project.
This license applies to all files found in such packages, and which do not fall under
their own explicit license. The license affects thus the FreeType font engine, the test
programs, documentation and makefiles, at the very least.
This license was inspired by the BSD, Artistic, and IJG (Independent JPEG Group)
licenses, which all encourage inclusion and use of free software in commercial and
freeware products alike. As a consequence, its main points are that:
• We don’t promise that this software works. However, we will be interested in
any kind of bug reports.(‘as is’ distribution)
• You can use this software for whatever you want, in parts or full form, without
having to pay us.(‘royalty-free’ usage)
• You may not pretend that you wrote this software. If you use it, or only parts of
it, in a program, you must acknowledge somewhere in your documentation
that you have used the FreeType code.(‘credits’)
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We specifically permit and encourage the inclusion of this software, with or without
modifications, in commercial products. We disclaim all warranties covering The
FreeType Project and assume no liability related to The FreeType Project.
Finally, many people asked us for a preferred form for a credit/disclaimer to use in
compliance with this license. We thus encourage you to use the following text:
Portions of this software are copyright © <year> The FreeType Project
(www.freetype.org). All rights reserved.
Please replace <year> with the value from the FreeType version you actually use.
Legal Terms
0. Definitions
Throughout this license, the terms ‘package’, ‘FreeType Project’, and ‘FreeType
archive’ refer to the set of files originally distributed by the authors (David
Turner, Robert Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg) as the ‘FreeType Project’, be
they named as alpha, beta or final release.
‘You’ refers to the licensee, or person using the project, where ‘using’ is a
generic term including compiling the project’s source code as well as linking
it to form a ‘program’ or ‘executable’. This program is referred to as ‘a program
using the FreeType engine’.
This license applies to all files distributed in the original FreeType Project,
including all source code, binaries and documentation, unless otherwise
stated in the file in its original, unmodified form as distributed in the original
archive. If you are unsure whether or not a particular file is covered by this
license, you must contact us to verify this.
The FreeType Project is copyright (C) 1996-2000 by David Turner, Robert
Wilhelm, and Werner Lemberg. All rights reserved except as specified below.
1. No Warranty
THE FREETYPE PROJECT IS PROVIDED ‘AS IS’ WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT WILL ANY OF THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES CAUSED BY THE USE OR THE
INABILITY TO USE, OF THE FREETYPE PROJECT.
2. Redistribution
This license grants a worldwide, royalty-free, perpetual and irrevocable right
and license to use, execute, perform, compile, display, copy, create derivative
works of, distribute and sublicense the FreeType Project (in both source and
object code forms) and derivative works thereof for any purpose; and to
authorize others to exercise some or all of the rights granted herein, subject to
the following conditions:
• Redistribution of source code must retain this license file (‘FTL.TXT’)
unaltered; any additions, deletions or changes to the original files must be
clearly indicated in accompanying documentation. The copyright notices
of the unaltered, original files must be preserved in all copies of source
files.
• Redistribution in binary form must provide a disclaimer that states that
the software is based in part of the work of the FreeType Team, in the
distribution documentation. We also encourage you to put an URL to the
FreeType web page in your documentation, though this isn’t mandatory.
These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the FreeType
Project, not just the unmodified files. If you use our work, you must
acknowledge us. However, no fee need be paid to us.
3. Advertising
Neither the FreeType authors and contributors nor you shall use the name of
the other for commercial, advertising, or promotional purposes without
specific prior written permission.
We suggest, but do not require, that you use one or more of the following
phrases to refer to this software in your documentation or advertising
materials: ‘FreeType Project’, ‘FreeType Engine’, ‘FreeType library’, or ‘FreeType
Distribution’.
As you have not signed this license, you are not required to accept it. However,
as the FreeType Project is copyrighted material, only this license, or another
one contracted with the authors, grants you the right to use, distribute, and
modify it. Therefore, by using, distributing, or modifying the FreeType Project,
you indicate that you understand and accept all the terms of this license.
4. Contacts
There are two mailing lists related to FreeType:
• freetype@nongnu.org
Discusses general use and applications of FreeType, as well as future and
wanted additions to the library and distribution. If you are looking for
support, start in this list if you haven’t found anything to help you in the
documentation.
• freetype-devel@nongnu.org
Discusses bugs, as well as engine internals, design issues, specific
licenses, porting, etc.
Our home page can be found at
http://www.freetype.org
 libpng
COPYRIGHT NOTICE, DISCLAIMER, and LICENSE:
If you modify libpng you may insert additional notices immediately following this
sentence.
libpng versions 1.2.6, August 15, 2004, through 1.2.26, April 2, 2008, are Copyright
© 2004, 2006-2008 Glenn Randers-Pehrson, and are distributed according to the
same disclaimer and license as libpng-1.2.5 with the following individual added to
the list of Contributing Authors
Cosmin Truta
libpng versions 1.0.7, July 1, 2000, through 1.2.5 - October 3, 2002, are Copyright ©
2000-2002 Glenn Randers-Pehrson, and are distributed according to the same
disclaimer and license as libpng-1.0.6 with the following individuals added to the
list of Contributing Authors
Simon-Pierre Cadieux
Eric S. Raymond
Gilles Vollant
and with the following additions to the disclaimer:
There is no warranty against interference with your enjoyment of the library or
against infringement. There is no warranty that our efforts or the library will
fulfill any of your particular purposes or needs. This library is provided with all
faults, and the entire risk of satisfactory quality, performance, accuracy, and
effort is with the user.
libpng versions 0.97, January 1998, through 1.0.6, March 20, 2000, are Copyright ©
1998, 1999 Glenn Randers-Pehrson, and are distributed according to the same
disclaimer and license as libpng-0.96, with the following individuals added to the
list of Contributing Authors:
Tom Lane
Glenn Randers-Pehrson
Willem van Schaik
libpng versions 0.89, June 1996, through 0.96, May 1997, are Copyright © 1996, 1997
Andreas Dilger Distributed according to the same disclaimer and license as libpng-
0.88, with the following individuals added to the list of Contributing Authors:
John Bowler
Kevin Bracey
Sam Bushell
Magnus Holmgren
Greg Roelofs
Tom Tanner
libpng versions 0.5, May 1995, through 0.88, January 1996, are Copyright © 1995,
1996 Guy Eric Schalnat, Group 42, Inc.
For the purposes of this copyright and license, “Contributing Authors” is defined as
the following set of individuals:
Andreas Dilger
Dave Martindale
Guy Eric Schalnat
Paul Schmidt
Tim Wegner
The PNG Reference Library is supplied “AS IS”. The Contributing Authors and
Group 42, Inc. disclaim all warranties, expressed or implied, including, without
limitation, the warranties of merchantability and of fitness for any purpose. The
Contributing Authors and Group 42, Inc. assume no liability for direct, indirect,
incidental, special, exemplary, or consequential damages, which may result from
the use of the PNG Reference Library, even if advised of the possibility of such
damage.
Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this source code,
or portions hereof, for any purpose, without fee, subject to the following restrictions:
1. The origin of this source code must not be misrepresented.
2. Altered versions must be plainly marked as such and must not be
misrepresented as being the original source.
3. This Copyright notice may not be removed or altered from any source or altered
source distribution.
The Contributing Authors and Group 42, Inc. specifically permit, without fee, and
encourage the use of this source code as a component to supporting the PNG file
format in commercial products. If you use this source code in a product,
acknowledgment is not required but would be appreciated.
A “png_get_copyright” function is available, for convenient use in “about” boxes
and the like: printf(“%s”,png_get_copyright(NULL));Also, the PNG logo (in PNG
format, of course) is supplied in the files “pngbar.png” and “pngbar.jpg (88x31) and
“pngnow.png” (98x31).
Libpng is OSI Certified Open Source Software. OSI Certified Open Source is a
certification mark of the Open Source Initiative.
Glenn Randers-Pehrson
glennrp at users.sourceforge.net
2-Apr-08
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 libjpg
The Independent JPEG Group’s JPEG software
README for release 6b of 27-Mar-1998
This distribution contains the sixth public release of the Independent JPEG Group’s
free JPEG software. You are welcome to redistribute this software and to use it for
any purpose, subject to the conditions under LEGAL ISSUES, below.
Serious users of this software (particularly those incorporating it into larger
programs) should contact IJG at jpeg-info@uunet.uu.net to be added to our
electronic mailing list. Mailing list members are notified of updates and have a
chance to participate in technical discussions, etc.
This software is the work of Tom Lane, Philip Gladstone, Jim Boucher, Lee Crocker,
Julian Minguillon, Luis Ortiz, George Phillips, Davide Rossi, Guido Vollbeding, Ge’
Weijers, and other members of the Independent JPEG Group.
IJG is not affiliated with the official ISO JPEG standards committee.
DOCUMENTATION ROADMAP
This file contains the following sections:
OVERVIEW General description of JPEG and the IJG software.
LEGAL ISSUES Copyright, lack of warranty, terms of distribution.
REFERENCES Where to learn more about JPEG.
ARCHIVE LOCATIONS Where to find newer versions of this software.
RELATED SOFTWARE Other stuff you should get.
FILE FORMAT WARS Software *not* to get.
TO DO Plans for future IJG releases.
Other documentation files in the distribution are:
User documentation:
install.doc How to configure and install the IJG software.
usage.doc Usage instructions for cjpeg, djpeg, jpegtran, rdjpgcom,
and wrjpgcom.
*.1 Unix-style man pages for programs (same info as usage.doc).
wizard.doc Advanced usage instructions for JPEG wizards only.
change.log Version-to-version change highlights.
Programmer and internal documentation:
libjpeg.doc How to use the JPEG library in your own programs.
example.c Sample code for calling the JPEG library.
structure.doc Overview of the JPEG library’s internal structure.
filelist.doc Road map of IJG files.
coderules.doc Coding style rules --- please read if you contribute code.
Please read at least the files install.doc and usage.doc. Useful information can also
be found in the JPEG FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) article. See ARCHIVE
LOCATIONS below to find out where to obtain the FAQ article.
If you want to understand how the JPEG code works, we suggest reading one or
more of the REFERENCES, then looking at the documentation files (in roughly the
order listed) before diving into the code.
OVERVIEW
This package contains C software to implement JPEG image compression and
decompression. JPEG (pronounced “jay-peg”) is a standardized compression
method for full-color and gray-scale images. JPEG is intended for compressing real-
world scenes; line drawings, cartoons and other non-realistic images are not its
strong suit. JPEG is lossy, meaning that the output image is not exactly identical to
the input image. Hence you must not use JPEG if you have to have identical output
bits. However, on typical photographic images, very good compression levels can
be obtained with no visible change, and remarkably high compression levels are
possible if you can tolerate a low-quality image. For more details, see the
references, or just experiment with various compression settings.
This software implements JPEG baseline, extended-sequential, and progressive
compression processes. Provision is made for supporting all variants of these
processes, although some uncommon parameter settings aren’t implemented yet.
For legal reasons, we are not distributing code for the arithmetic-coding variants of
JPEG; see LEGAL ISSUES. We have made no provision for supporting the
hierarchical or lossless processes defined in the standard.
We provide a set of library routines for reading and writing JPEG image files, plus
two sample applications “cjpeg” and “djpeg”, which use the library to perform
conversion between JPEG and some other popular image file formats. The library is
intended to be reused in other applications.
In order to support file conversion and viewing software, we have included
considerable functionality beyond the bare JPEG coding/decoding capability; for
example, the color quantization modules are not strictly part of JPEG decoding, but
they are essential for output to colormapped file formats or colormapped displays.
These extra functions can be compiled out of the library if not required for a
particular application. We have also included jpegtran, a utility for lossless
transcoding between different JPEG processes, and “rdjpgcom” and “wrjpgcom”,
two simple applications for inserting and extracting textual comments in JFIF files.
The emphasis in designing this software has been on achieving portability and
flexibility, while also making it fast enough to be useful. In particular, the software
is not intended to be read as a tutorial on JPEG. (See the REFERENCES section for
introductory material.) Rather, it is intended to be reliable, portable, industrial-
strength code. We do not claim to have achieved that goal in every aspect of the
software, but we strive for it.
We welcome the use of this software as a component of commercial products. No
royalty is required, but we do ask for an acknowledgement in product
documentation, as described under LEGAL ISSUES.
LEGAL ISSUES
In plain English:
1. We don’t promise that this software works. (But if you find any bugs, please let
us know!)
2. You can use this software for whatever you want. You don’t have to pay us.
3. You may not pretend that you wrote this software. If you use it in a program,
you must acknowledge somewhere in your documentation that you’ve used
the IJG code.
In legalese:
The authors make NO WARRANTY or representation, either express or implied, with
respect to this software, its quality, accuracy, merchantability, or fitness for a
particular purpose. This software is provided “AS IS”, and you, its user, assume the
entire risk as to its quality and accuracy.
This software is copyright © 1991-1998, Thomas G. Lane. All Rights Reserved except
as specified below.
Permission is hereby granted to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software (or
portions thereof) for any purpose, without fee, subject to these conditions:
(1) If any part of the source code for this software is distributed, then this README
file must be included, with this copyright and no-warranty notice unaltered;
and any additions, deletions, or changes to the original files must be clearly
indicated in accompanying documentation.
(2) If only executable code is distributed, then the accompanying documentation
must state that “this software is based in part on the work of the Independent
JPEG Group”.
(3) Permission for use of this software is granted only if the user accepts full
responsibility for any undesirable consequences; the authors accept NO
LIABILITY for damages of any kind.
These conditions apply to any software derived from or based on the IJG code, not
just to the unmodified library. If you use our work, you ought to acknowledge us.
Permission is NOT granted for the use of any IJG author's name or company name
in advertising or publicity relating to this software or products derived from it. This
software may be referred to only as “the Independent JPEG Group's software”.
We specifically permit and encourage the use of this software as the basis of
commercial products, provided that all warranty or liability claims are assumed by
the product vendor.
ansi2knr.c is included in this distribution by permission of L. Peter Deutsch, sole
proprietor of its copyright holder, Aladdin Enterprises of Menlo Park, CA. ansi2knr.c
is NOT covered by the above copyright and conditions, but instead by the usual
distribution terms of the Free Software Foundation; principally, that you must
include source code if you redistribute it. (See the file ansi2knr.c for full details.)
However, since ansi2knr.c is not needed as part of any program generated from the
IJG code, this does not limit you more than the foregoing paragraphs do.
The Unix configuration script “configure” was produced with GNU Autoconf. It is
copyright by the Free Software Foundation but is freely distributable. The same
holds for its supporting scripts (config.guess, config.sub, ltconfig, ltmain.sh).
Another support script, install-sh, is copyright by M.I.T. but is also freely
distributable.
It appears that the arithmetic coding option of the JPEG spec is covered by patents
owned by IBM, AT&T, and Mitsubishi. Hence arithmetic coding cannot legally be
used without obtaining one or more licenses. For this reason, support for arithmetic
coding has been removed from the free JPEG software. (Since arithmetic coding
provides only a marginal gain over the unpatented Huffman mode, it is unlikely that
very many implementations will support it.) So far as we are aware, there are no
patent restrictions on the remaining code.
The IJG distribution formerly included code to read and write GIF files. To avoid
entanglement with the Unisys LZW patent, GIF reading support has been removed
altogether, and the GIF writer has been simplified to produce uncompressed GIFs.
This technique does not use the LZW algorithm; the resulting GIF files are larger
than usual, but are readable by all standard GIF decoders.
We are required to state that
“The Graphics Interchange Format(c) is the Copyright property of CompuServe
Incorporated. GIF(sm) is a Service Mark property of CompuServe
Incorporated.”
REFERENCES
We highly recommend reading one or more of these references before trying to
understand the innards of the JPEG software.
The best short technical introduction to the JPEG compression algorithm is
Wallace, Gregory K. “The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard”,
Communications of the ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34 no. 4), pp. 30-44.
(Adjacent articles in that issue discuss MPEG motion picture compression,
applications of JPEG, and related topics.) If you don’t have the CACM issue handy,
a PostScript file containing a revised version of Wallace’s article is available at ftp:/
/ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/wallace.ps.gz. The file (actually a preprint for an article
that appeared in IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics) omits the sample images that
appeared in CACM, but it includes corrections and some added material. Note: the
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Wallace article is copyright ACM and IEEE, and it may not be used for commercial
purposes.
A somewhat less technical, more leisurely introduction to JPEG can be found in The
Data Compression Book by Mark Nelson and Jean-loup Gailly, published by M&T
Books (New York), 2nd ed. 1996, ISBN 1-55851-434-1. This book provides good
explanations and example C code for a multitude of compression methods
including JPEG. It is an excellent source if you are comfortable reading C code but
don’t know much about data compression in general. The book’s JPEG sample
code is far from industrial-strength, but when you are ready to look at a full
implementation, you’ve got one here...
The best full description of JPEG is the textbook “JPEG Still Image Data
Compression Standard” by William B. Pennebaker and Joan L. Mitchell, published
by Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, ISBN 0-442-01272-1. Price US$59.95, 638 pp. The
book includes the complete text of the ISO JPEG standards (DIS 10918-1 and draft
DIS 10918-2). This is by far the most complete exposition of JPEG in existence, and
we highly recommend it.
The JPEG standard itself is not available electronically; you must order a paper copy
through ISO or ITU. (Unless you feel a need to own a certified official copy, we
recommend buying the Pennebaker and Mitchell book instead; it’s much cheaper
and includes a great deal of useful explanatory material.) In the USA, copies of the
standard may be ordered from ANSI Sales at (212) 642-4900, or from Global
Engineering Documents at (800) 854-7179. (ANSI doesn’t take credit card orders,
but Global does.) It’s not cheap: as of 1992, ANSI was charging $95 for Part 1 and
$47 for Part 2, plus 7% shipping/handling. The standard is divided into two parts,
Part 1 being the actual specification, while Part 2 covers compliance testing
methods. Part 1 is titled “Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-tone Still
Images, Part 1: Requirements and guidelines” and has document numbers ISO/IEC
IS 10918-1, ITU-T T.81. Part 2 is titled “Digital Compression and Coding of
Continuous-tone Still Images, Part 2: Compliance testing” and has document
numbers ISO/IEC IS 10918-2, ITU-T T.83.
Some extensions to the original JPEG standard are defined in JPEG Part 3, a newer
ISO standard numbered ISO/IEC IS 10918-3 and ITU-T T.84. IJG currently does not
support any Part 3 extensions.
The JPEG standard does not specify all details of an interchangeable file format. For
the omitted details we follow the “JFIF” conventions, revision 1.02. A copy of the JFIF
spec is available from:
Literature Department
C-Cube Microsystems, Inc.
1778 McCarthy Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
phone (408) 944-6300, fax (408) 944-6314
A PostScript version of this document is available by FTP at ftp://ftp.uu.net/
graphics/jpeg/jfif.ps.gz. There is also a plain text version at ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/
jpeg/jfif.txt.gz, but it is missing the figures.
The TIFF 6.0 file format specification can be obtained by FTP from ftp://ftp.sgi.com/
graphics/tiff/TIFF6.ps.gz. The JPEG incorporation scheme found in the TIFF 6.0 spec
of 3-June-92 has a number of serious problems. IJG does not recommend use of the
TIFF 6.0 design (TIFF Compression tag 6). Instead, we recommend the JPEG design
proposed by TIFF Technical Note #2 (Compression tag 7). Copies of this Note can
be obtained from ftp.sgi.com or from ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/. It is expected
that the next revision of the TIFF spec will replace the 6.0 JPEG design with the
Note's design. Although IJG's own code does not support TIFF/JPEG, the free libtiff
library uses our library to implement TIFF/JPEG per the Note. libtiff is available from
ftp://ftp.sgi.com/graphics/tiff/.
ARCHIVE LOCATIONS
The “official” archive site for this software is ftp.uu.net (Internet address
192.48.96.9). The most recent released version can always be found there in
directory graphics/jpeg. This particular version will be archived as ftp://ftp.uu.net/
graphics/jpeg/jpegsrc.v6b.tar.gz. If you don’t have direct Internet access, UUNET’s
archives are also available via UUCP; contact help@uunet.uu.net for information
on retrieving files that way.
Numerous Internet sites maintain copies of the UUNET files. However, only
ftp.uu.net is guaranteed to have the latest official version.
You can also obtain this software in DOS-compatible “zip” archive format from the
SimTel archives (ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/msdos/graphics/), or on
CompuServe in the Graphics Support forum (GO CIS:GRAPHSUP), library 12 JPEG
Tools. Again, these versions may sometimes lag behind the ftp.uu.net release.
The JPEG FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) article is a useful source of general
information about JPEG. It is updated constantly and therefore is not included in
this distribution. The FAQ is posted every two weeks to Usenet newsgroups
comp.graphics.misc, news.answers, and other groups. It is available on the World
Wide Web at http://www.faqs.org/faqs/jpeg-faq/ and other news.answers archive
sites, including the official news.answers archive at rtfm.mit.edu: ftp://
rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/. If you don't have Web or FTP
access, send e-mail to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with body
send usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/part1
send usenet/news.answers/jpeg-faq/part2
RELATED SOFTWARE
Numerous viewing and image manipulation programs now support JPEG. (Quite a
few of them use this library to do so.) The JPEG FAQ described above lists some of
the more popular free and shareware viewers, and tells where to obtain them on
Internet.
If you are on a Unix machine, we highly recommend Jef Poskanzer’s free PBMPLUS
software, which provides many useful operations on PPM-format image files. In
particular, it can convert PPM images to and from a wide range of other formats,
thus making cjpeg/djpeg considerably more useful. The latest version is distributed
by the NetPBM group, and is available from numerous sites, notably ftp://
wuarchive.wustl.edu/graphics/graphics/packages/NetPBM/. Unfortunately
PBMPLUS/NETPBM is not nearly as portable as the IJG software is; you are likely
to have difficulty making it work on any non-Unix machine.
A different free JPEG implementation, written by the PVRG group at Stanford, is
available from ftp://havefun.stanford.edu/pub/jpeg/. This program is designed for
research and experimentation rather than production use; it is slower, harder to
use, and less portable than the IJG code, but it is easier to read and modify. Also,
the PVRG code supports lossless JPEG, which we do not. (On the other hand, it
doesn’t do progressive JPEG.)
FILE FORMAT WARS
Some JPEG programs produce files that are not compatible with our library. The
root of the problem is that the ISO JPEG committee failed to specify a concrete file
format. Some vendors “filled in the blanks” on their own, creating proprietary
formats that no one else could read. (For example, none of the early commercial
JPEG implementations for the Macintosh were able to exchange compressed files.)
The file format we have adopted is called JFIF (see REFERENCES). This format has
been agreed to by a number of major commercial JPEG vendors, and it has become
the de facto standard. JFIF is a minimal or “low end” representation. We
recommend the use of TIFF/JPEG (TIFF revision 6.0 as modified by TIFF Technical
Note #2) for “high end” applications that need to record a lot of additional data
about an image. TIFF/JPEG is fairly new and not yet widely supported, unfortunately.
The upcoming JPEG Part 3 standard defines a file format called SPIFF. SPIFF is
interoperable with JFIF, in the sense that most JFIF decoders should be able to read
the most common variant of SPIFF. SPIFF has some technical advantages over JFIF,
but its major claim to fame is simply that it is an official standard rather than an
informal one. At this point it is unclear whether SPIFF will supersede JFIF or
whether JFIF will remain the de-facto standard. IJG intends to support SPIFF once
the standard is frozen, but we have not decided whether it should become our
default output format or not. (In any case, our decoder will remain capable of
reading JFIF indefinitely.)
Various proprietary file formats incorporating JPEG compression also exist. We
have little or no sympathy for the existence of these formats. Indeed, one of the
original reasons for developing this free software was to help force convergence on
common, open format standards for JPEG files. Don’t use a proprietary file format!
TO DO
The major thrust for v7 will probably be improvement of visual quality. The current
method for scaling the quantization tables is known not to be very good at low Q
values. We also intend to investigate block boundary smoothing, “poor man’s
variable quantization”, and other means of improving quality-vs-file-size
performance without sacrificing compatibility.
In future versions, we are considering supporting some of the upcoming JPEG Part
3 extensions --- principally, variable quantization and the SPIFF file format.
As always, speeding things up is of great interest.
Please send bug reports, offers of help, etc. to jpeg-info@uunet.uu.net.
 libupnp
Copyright (c) 2000-2003 Intel Corporation
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are
permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list
of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or
other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither name of Intel Corporation nor the names of its contributors may be
used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
CONTRIBUTORS
“AS IS” AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL INTEL OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
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TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF
THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
DAMAGE.
 AVC/H.264
THIS PRODUCT IS LICENSED UNDER THE AVC PATENT PORTFOLIO LICENSE FOR
THE PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL USE OF A CONSUMER TO (i) ENCODE
VIDEO IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE AVC STANDARD (”AVC VIDEO”) AND/OR (ii)
DECODE AVC VIDEO THAT WAS ENCODED BY A CONSUMER ENGAGED IN A
PERSONAL AND NON-COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY AND/OR WAS OBTAINED FROM A
VIDEO PROVIDER LICENSED TO PROVIDE AVC VIDEO. No LICENSE IS GRANTED
OR SHALL BE IMPLIED FOR ANY OTHER USE. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION MAY
BE OBTAINED FROM MPEG LA, L.L.C. SEE HTTP://MPEGLA.COM.
 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright © 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth
Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and
change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee
your freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free
for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.
(Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser
General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General
Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute
copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive
source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use
pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you
these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to
certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you
modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee,
you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that
they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms
so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you
this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the
software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone
understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is
modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what
they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not
reflect on the original authors’ reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to
avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent
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it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone’s free use or not licensed at
all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of
this General Public License. The “Program”, below, refers to any such program
or work, and a “work based on the Program” means either the Program or any
derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without
limitation in the term “modification”.) Each licensee is addressed as “you”.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by
this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not
restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by
running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program
does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as
you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and
to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a
copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may
at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus
forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such
modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you
also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or
in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be
licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this
License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when
run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in
the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an
appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or
else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute
the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a
copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the
Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable
sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably
considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License,
and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as
separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole
which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be
on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to
the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to
work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control
the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with
the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage
or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this
License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section
2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source
code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2
above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any
third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing
source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the
corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to
distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only for
noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object
code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b
above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all
the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface
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the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed
need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or
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If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy
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code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even
though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object
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4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate
your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or
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long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it.
However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the
Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do
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(or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this
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License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or
modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program),
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You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients’ exercise of the
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You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this
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License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a
consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a
patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all
those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way
you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from
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If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any
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It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or
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This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a
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8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries
either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder
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permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this
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9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the
General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in
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Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
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If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may
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10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose
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For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the
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NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
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APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
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“AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
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ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM
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THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
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WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
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SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM
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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to
the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone
can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to
the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and
each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full
notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright © <year> <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin
Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in
an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright © year name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type ‘show
w’. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain
conditions; type ‘show c’ for details.
The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be
called something other than ‘show w’ and ‘show c’; they could even be mouse-
clicks or menu items - whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if
any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample;
alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it
more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what
you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.
 GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2.1, February 1999
Copyright © 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
[This is the first released version of the Lesser GPL. It also counts as the successor
of the GNU Library Public License, version 2, hence the version number 2.1.]
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and
change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee
your freedom to share and change free software - to make sure the software is free
for all its users. This license, the Lesser General Public License, applies to some
specially designated software packages - typically libraries - of the Free Software
Foundation and other authors who decide to use it. You can use it too, but we
suggest you first think carefully about whether this license or the ordinary General
Public License is the better strategy to use in any particular case, based on the
explanations below.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom of use, not price. Our
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to
distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish); that you
receive source code or can get it if you want it; that you can change the software
and use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you are informed that you can
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To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid distributors to deny
you these rights or to ask you to surrender these rights. These restrictions translate
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license, which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the
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To protect each distributor, we want to make it very clear that there is no warranty
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Most GNU software, including some libraries, is covered by the ordinary GNU
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Although the Lesser General Public License is Less protective of the users’
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